您的位置:首页 > 艺术资讯 > 访谈
韦娜与千年古墓壁画“对话”
阅读次数: 加入时间:2015-10-03 作者:汪一飞
分享到:

    当韦娜在电话里听到冯老一声“书看到了,非常好!”的时候,眼睛湿润了,心头涌上一阵强烈的感动。yqp博雅艺术网
    博雅国画:国画新闻yqp博雅艺术网
    那是祖国55岁华诞的喜庆日子,韦娜的学术专著《洛阳汉墓壁画艺术》刚刚出版,她就给北京的冯其庸老前辈寄去一本。电话里熟悉的声音,使她想起了第一次和冯老见面的情景:yqp博雅艺术网
    1989年,在河南商丘召开的一次中国汉画研究会年会上,34岁的韦娜把自己3年来临摹的一些洛阳古墓壁画作品送给冯其庸会长观看。冯老边看边称赞她画得极为传神,说:“你真幸运,你能有机会面对两千年前的古人作品,能从事这项工作,很好,真该好好珍惜。洛阳古墓多,得天独厚啊!”是的,洛阳是两汉的陪都与国都,故堪称华夏文明瑰宝的壁画墓较为集中,占全国已发现的两汉壁画墓总数的40%,冯老讲起常书鸿在敦煌临摹壁画一蹲十几年的执著劲儿,给韦娜以强烈震动。她想起1986年刚接触这项工作之时的畏难情绪,不禁惭愧地低下了头。yqp博雅艺术网

后室顶脊太一阴阳图--浅井头西汉壁画墓yqp博雅艺术网

后室顶脊太一阴阳图--浅井头西汉壁画墓yqp博雅艺术网

    古墓壁画临摹第一课yqp博雅艺术网
    那年她刚到筹建中的洛阳古墓博物馆。馆长黄明兰把搬迁和临摹古墓壁画的任务交给了她。第一次去金谷园村的新莽时期壁画墓发掘工地时,只见一米直径的竖井上,立着三根木头搭成的支架,外加一根粗麻绳、一个箩筐。“就这样下去啊?” 面对黑洞洞的竖井,韦娜心生恐惧,面有惧色。黄馆长说:“我先下。”他跨进箩筐,几个民工拽住绳子慢慢把筐子放下去,不一会,传来下到井底的黄馆长声音:“没事,你下来吧。”韦娜的心咚咚直跳,看民工把筐子提上来,她只得学着黄馆长的样子,下到了十几米深的井下。yqp博雅艺术网
    发掘于1978年的这座古墓,尸骨、随葬品早已清理干净,但里面空气污浊,地面泥泞,昏暗的墓穴显得阴森森的。四周墓壁上画满了奇形怪状的云纹图样、动物和一幅幅人面蛇身、人面鸟身之类的画面,这一下把个娇弱的韦娜吓得胆战心惊,她感觉此刻自己已被包围在阴森恐怖的墓穴中,压抑得很。黄馆长让她换上长统胶鞋,穿起工作服,支上画板,并给她讲述壁画的内容,此时的韦娜才慢慢定下心来,她发现这座墓上圆下方,像个蒙古包,结构奇特别致。墓室的穹隆顶上绘有天体流云、日月星辰,主室两壁有16幅彩画,古朴严谨,气势宏大,整个墓室鲜艳夺目,富丽堂皇。韦娜细细一看,一下子惊呆了!一个画家当然能看出这些壁画的艺术价值,虽然刚开始时她对这里的恶劣环境不适应,但此刻她已渐渐被壁画的艺术魅力所征服。韦娜就这样上了古墓壁画临摹的第一课,此后她便很好地把这项工作坚持下来了。临摹顶上的画,最是费劲,仰面看,低头画,一天下来总是弄得灰头土脸,脖酸眼疼。这个墓的临摹绘制花了她一个月的时间才全部干完。就这样,从两汉到北宋的22座典型墓葬,它们被搬迁复原到古墓博物馆内,其中所有的墓室壁画都由韦娜临摹并做了资料,出色完成了领导交给的任务。yqp博雅艺术网
    与画面人物心灵交流yqp博雅艺术网
    临摹不是简单的模仿,而是忠于原作的神形兼备、惟妙惟肖的描绘,没有绘画艺术功底,没有对壁画进行认真的观察和研究,很难临摹出上品的摹本。所以,对古墓壁画的临摹,不仅需要艺术才华,更需要忠于原作及保持现状的科学态度和历史责任感。临摹工作既是艺术,更是科学。对这个道理,韦娜在实践中逐步加深了认识,以至心领神会,烂熟于胸。她说:“我每日伫立在古墓壁画前,默默地和画面上的一个个人物进行心灵交流,聆听他们的语言,欣赏他们的动作,思绪往往完全融入画面的场景中去,以致于经常达到寝食难安、物我两忘的地步。”从1986年到1999 年,她在古墓博物馆里日日以画为伴,面对一幅幅壁画真迹,徜徉其间难以自拔,常深陷于冥思苦索之中,她不仅读懂了古人的丰富想象力和绘画艺术,更为古人对美的向往和追求而感动。十几年中,她被这种感动所驱使,共临摹古墓壁画及陶器图案、纹样百余幅,并对自己的摹本客观地审视,凡不完美处则坚决推倒重来。yqp博雅艺术网
    在偃师杏园村东汉壁画墓里,一幅长12米、宽0.6米的壁画上,画了9乘车,50匹奔马,70个人物,表现墓主生前出行的宏大威赫场面。人物和奔马描绘得形神兼备,极富动感和质感,给观者以强大的视觉冲击力。在这幅被公认为汉代壁画极佳作品面前,开始韦娜觉得无从下手,拿不下来,看那马的背,马的腿,都是一挥而就,而自己总是一挥而不就,一点点临,往往失去了原作的大气。她反复观审,伫立长思,体察画面的涵义,揣摩画工的笔法,与古人进行心灵的交流,慢慢地她读懂了,读透了,感动了,共鸣了,然后再下笔临摹,终于很好地保持了画作的风貌。现在我们在洛阳古墓博物馆杏园壁画墓中看到的车马出行图,就是韦娜临摹的佳作。在《洛阳汉墓壁画艺术》一书里,作者选用的131幅临摹作品中,有44幅取自这幅车马出行图。在洛阳从事考古发掘和研究工作30多年的研究员叶万松先生,评介韦娜的摹本“能客观反映壁画内容,忠实表现壁画的艺术风格和绘画手法”。作为考古学家的他,为韦娜能用画笔客观忠实地记录、保存珍贵的历史文化遗产而充满感激之情。yqp博雅艺术网

南壁车马图、东壁夫妇宴饮图局部--东汉壁画墓yqp博雅艺术网

南壁车马图、东壁夫妇宴饮图局部--东汉壁画墓yqp博雅艺术网

    有汉墓壁画之地都有她的足迹yqp博雅艺术网
    1993年在河南南阳召开的汉画像石(砖)国际学术讨论会上,韦娜的论文《试论洛阳地区汉墓壁画的题材与风格》得到了中外学者的一致好评,时任中国汉画研究会会长的冯其庸称它是“很好的一篇论文”,并在总结会上给予很高的评价。韦娜自知理论功底较浅,平日总是有些战战兢兢,这次专家们的高度肯定,自然使她深受鼓舞!她的这些成就,得来也实属不易。平日对学术研究持严肃态度的她,为了进一步深入研究汉墓壁画艺术,不辞劳苦,足迹遍及大河上下、长城内外,河北、山西、山东、江苏的汉墓壁画前都留有她虔诚的脚印。在论文《洛阳汉墓壁画艺术》中,她比较系统地论述了洛阳地区汉墓壁画所反映的题材内容,在艺术风格和技巧方面,她总结归纳出“五种技法”,并逐项详加论述。《洛阳汉墓壁画艺术》一书既有论述文字,又有壁画摹本,文图并茂,珠联璧合,具有论著与画册并体合集的美术考古特色。致力于中原美术考古研究逾30载的郑州大学美术系教授、研究员宫大中先生说:“韦娜的这部力著,向世人展示了中原美术考古在洛阳地区汉墓壁画研究上的成就,是一颗闪光的明珠。”yqp博雅艺术网
    冯其庸先生多年来一直关注韦娜对汉墓壁画的临摹和研究工作,因为他认为,汉画是中国画的奠基阶段,对中国画的发展具有极其重要的作用。要研究中国画的历史,研究汉画是首要的一课。几十年来,我们一直苦于缺少这方面的资料,也缺少这方面的研究成果。所以他说:“韦娜同志的这部专著出版,正好解决了这方面的急需。”成书后,冯老欣然为该书题写书名,并作序文。他在序文里抨击了现在有些人“瞧不起祖国的优秀传统,而对着外来的并不高明的东西顶礼膜拜,是一种罪过,是忘记了祖宗,是数典忘祖。现在是呼唤传统回归的时候了。当然我这里不仅是指汉画的回归,而是指整个传统中国画和传统文化艺术的回归!”年近耄耋之年的冯其庸激情写道:“韦娜的这本书出版,我把它看作是一声传统回归的呼唤,看作是一曲爱国主义的高歌!” yqp博雅艺术网
Artist Copies Tomb Muralsyqp博雅艺术网
By Wang Yifeiyqp博雅艺术网
  Wei Na started copying tomb murals at age 31 for Luoyang Museum of Ancient Tombs. It was in 1986. The first trip to an underground tomb was frightful. At an excavation site, she was to descend into the tomb in a bamboo basket to be lowered down by a rope through a one-meter-wide dark hole.yqp博雅艺术网
  Facing the yawning cavity, she felt petrified. The curator said he would go down first. He stepped into the basket and disappeared into the ground       slowly. Pretty soon, Wei heard the curator call from the abysm, "It's OK." The workers pulled up the basket. Wei timidly stepped into basket. After descending for more than 10 meters, the artist entered a different world.yqp博雅艺术网
  First excavated in 1978, the tomb had been cleared of all the burial things. The coffin vault looked murky and macabre with a thick earthy odor. The walls of the vault had paintings of strange-looking human figures with snake torsos or bird torsos, animals and odd-looking clouds.yqp博雅艺术网
  She felt oppressively frightened. After changing into long boots and overalls, she set up the easel and began to listen to the curator's explanation. Guided by the curator, Wei looked at the 16 murals one by one. Gradually she began to be able to appreciate what she saw. The ceiling of the vault had the sun, moon and stars and clouds. The murals were very magnificent in an ancient style. As an artist, Wei soon understood the artistic value of these murals. It took her a month to copy all the 16 murals.yqp博雅艺术网
  Thus started her brilliant career as an artist who copies murals buried deeply in tombs dating back to Western Han Dynasty (206B.C.-24A.D.) and Eastern Han dynasty (25-220A.D.).yqp博雅艺术网
  The new museum had 22 ancient tombs moved and duplicated and restored on the premise. Wei copied and recreated all the murals of the 22 ancient tombs.yqp博雅艺术网
  For Wei Na, copying is by no means simple Artist Copies Tomb Murals duplication. The ancient tomb murals have things that are hard to copy. Perfection does not come from lifeless imitation. It is art that Wei copies and recreates in an original and creative way. She has learned it the hard way.yqp博雅艺术网
  On one 12-meter-wide, 0.6-meter-tall mural in an Eastern-Han tomb, there are 6 carriages, 50 loping horses and 70 human figures. The mural successfully embodies the power and fortune the dead magnate enjoyed in his lifetime. Human figures and steeds look extremely vivid and textured. The mural tends to stun a first viewer with its visual power. Before the masterpiece, Wei felt lost at how to set about the job at first. Wei could see that the horses were created in one action. She failed to recreate the master touches. She copied at a slow pace and then she could sense something big was lost.yqp博雅艺术网
  To capture the original verve, she stopped the work and began to study the art embodied in the mural. She mused and experimented on different brush strokes, trying to peep into the mind and soul of the ancient artist. Gradually, she began to see more in the ancient masterpiece. A passion grew in her. Then she resumed the copying work. This time, she successfully recreated the style and features of the ancient mural.yqp博雅艺术网
  In 1989, Wei presented her copies to Feng Qiyong, president of China Research Institute of Han Dynasty Paintings. The scholar thought highly of Wei's works and encouraged her to make the best use of the tombs unearthed in Luoyang and create more imitation masterpieces.yqp博雅艺术网
  In 1993, she presented a paper at an international conference on Han-dynasty paintings and bricks held in Luoyang. The paper discussed the themes and techniques used to create the tomb murals in the Han Dynasty. It was highly regarded at the conference.yqp博雅艺术网
  In 2004, Wei had an album of her mural copies published. Of the 133 paintings in the collection, 44 are copies from the above-mentioned long tomb mural.yqp博雅艺术网
  Mr. Feng thinks highly of Wei's work. According to Feng, paintings created in the Han Dynasty were masterpieces when Chinese painting art was in its burgeoning period. These paintings played a vital part in the development of traditional Chinese art. The art in the Han Dynasty should be the first subject in the study of the Chinese art history. Studies in this field want both materials and concrete achievements. Wei's book is a great contribution that partly fills the gap.yqp博雅艺术网
  Feng says in the preface of the collection that it is high time for us to go back to our roots.yqp博雅艺术网
  (Translated by David)yqp博雅艺术网

编辑:青花斗彩 来自:

微信扫一扫
博雅艺术网